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EJASA - Part 14

                                                                     Page 94

                                  APPENDIX B

                              THE SETI PROTOCOLS

    The following information was provided by Robert Arnold of the SETI

                                          November 20, 1991

    Dear Colleague,

    It is my pleasure to send you a copy of a document entitled
    "Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the
    Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence."

    The Declaration was developed over a period of several years by the
    SETI Committee of the International Academy of Astronautics, with the
    assistance of many experts interested in this question.  In April of
    1989 it was approved by the Board of Trustees of the Academy, and also
    by the Board of Directors of the International Institute of Space Law.
    Over the last two years it has been endorsed by the Committee on Space
    Research, by Commission 51 of the International Astronomical Union, by
    the members of Commission J of the Union Radio Scientifique
    Internationale, and by the International Astronautical Federation.

    The document is intended as a series of guidelines for individuals or
    organizations, national or international, engaged in carrying out radio
    searches for extraterrestrial intelligence.  In the near future it will
    be sent by the Academy to all such individuals and organizations with a
    request that they give consideration to endorsing it.

    In the meantime, the SETI Committee of the International Academy of
    Astronautics will continue to review the principles and procedures of
    the Declaration, and will assemble a special post-detection committee,
    as indicated in Principle 9 of the document.  The Committee is also
    working on a second declaration, designed to expand the wording of
    Principle 8 into a process for obtaining international agreement on
    questions about a reply from Earth after the detection of a signal.


    John Billingham
    Chief, SETI Office


                                                                     Page 95

    Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection
    of Extraterrestrial Intelligence -

    We, the institutions and individuals participating in the search for
    extraterrestrial intelligence,

    Recognizing that the search for extraterrestrial intelligence is an
    integral part of space exploration and is being undertaken for peaceful
    purposes and for the common interest of all mankind,

    Inspired by the profound significance for mankind of detecting evidence
    of extraterrestrial intelligence, even though the probability of
    detection may be low,

    Recalling the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States
    in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other
    Celestial Bodies, which commits States Parties to that Treaty "to
    inform the Secretary General of the United Nations as well as the
    public and the international scientific community, to the greatest
    extent feasible and practicable, of the, nature, conduct, locations and
    results" of their space exploration activities (Article XI),

    Recognizing that any initial detection may be incomplete or ambiguous
    and thus require careful examination as well as confirmation, and that
    it is essential to maintain the highest standards of scientific
    responsibility and credibility,

    Agree to observe the following principles for disseminating information
    about the detection of extraterrestrial intelligence:

    1.  Any individual, public or private research institution, or
        governmental agency that believes it has detected a signal from or
        other evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence (the discoverer)
        should seek to verify that the most plausible explanation for the
        evidence is the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence rather
        than some other natural phenomenon or anthropogenic phenomenon
        before making any public announcement.  If the evidence cannot be
        confirmed as indicating the existence of extraterrestrial
        intelligence, the discoverer may disseminate the information as
        appropriate to the discovery of any unknown phenomenon.

    2.  Prior to making a public announcement that evidence of extra-
        terrestrial intelligence has been detected, the discoverer should
        promptly inform all other observers or research organizations that
        are parties to this declaration, so that those other parties may
        seek to confirm the discovery by independent observations at other
        sites and so that a network can be established to enable continuous
        monitoring of the signal or phenomenon.  Parties to this
        declaration should not make any public announcement of this
        information until it is determined whether this information is or
        is not credible evidence of the existence of extraterrestrial
        intelligence.  The discoverer should inform his/her or its relevant
        national authorities.

                                                                     Page 96

    3.  After concluding that the discovery appears to be credible evidence
        of extraterrestrial intelligence, and after informing other parties
        to this declaration, the discoverer should inform observers
        throughout the world through the Central Bureau for Astronomical
        Telegrams of the International Astronomical Union, and should
        inform the Secretary General of the United Nations in accordance
        with Article XI of the Treaty on Principles Governing the
        Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space,
        Including the Moon and Other Bodies.  Because of their demonstrated
        interest in and expertise concerning the question of the existence
        of extraterrestrial intelligence, the discoverer should
        simultaneously inform the following international institutions of
        the discovery and should provide them with all pertinent data and
        recorded information concerning the evidence:  the International
        Telecommunication Union, the Committee on Space Research, of the
        International Council of Scientific Unions, the International
        Astronautical Federation, the International Academy of
        Astronautics, the International Institute of Space Law, Commission
        51 of the International Astronomical Union and Commission J of the
        International Radio Science Union.

    4.  A confirmed detection of extraterrestrial intelligence should be
        disseminated promptly, openly, and widely through scientific
        channels and public media, observing the procedures in this
        declaration.  The discoverer should have the privilege of making
        the first public announcement.

    5.  All data necessary for confirmation of detection should be made
        available to the international scientific community through
        publications, meetings, conferences, and other appropriate means.

    6.  The discovery should be confirmed and monitored and any data
        bearing on the evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence should be
        recorded and stored permanently to the greatest extent feasible and
        practicable, in a form that will make it available for further
        analysis and interpretation.  These recordings should be made
        available to the international institutions listed above and to
        members of the scientific community for further objective analysis
        and interpretation.

    7.  If the evidence of detection is in the form of electromagnetic
        signals, the parties to this declaration should seek international
        agreement to protect the appropriate frequencies by exercising
        procedures available through the International Telecommunication
        Union.  Immediate notice should be sent to the Secretary General of
        the ITU in Geneva, who may include a request to minimize trans-
        missions on the relevant frequencies in the Weekly Circular.  The
        Secretariat, in conjunction with advice of the Union's Admini-
        strative Council, should explore the feasibility and utility of
        convening an Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference to deal
        with the matter, subject to the opinions of the member Admini-
        strations of the ITU.

                                                                     Page 97

    8.  No response to a signal or other evidence of extraterrestrial
        intelligence should be sent until appropriate international
        consultations have taken place.  The procedures for such
        consultations will be the subject of a separate agreement,
        declaration or arrangement.

    9.  The SETI Committee of the International Academy of Astronautics, in
        coordination with Commission 51 of the International Astronomical
        Union, will conduct a continuing review of procedures for the
        detection of extraterrestrial intelligence and the subsequent
        handling of the data.  Should credible evidence of extraterrestrial
        intelligence be discovered, an international committee of
        scientists and other experts should be established to serve as a
        focal point for continuing analysis of all observational evidence
        collected in the aftermath of the discovery, and also to provide
        advice on the release of information to the public.  This committee
        should be constituted from representatives of each of the
        international institutions listed above and such other members as
        the committee may deem necessary.  To facilitate the convocation of
        such a committee at some unknown time in the future, the SETI
        Committee of the International Academy of Astronautics should
        initiate and maintain a current list of willing representatives
        from each of the international institutions listed above, as well
        as other individuals with relevant skills, and should make that
        list continuously available through the Secretariat of the
        International Academy of Astronautics.  The International Academy
        of Astronautics will act as the Depository for this declaration and
        will annually provide a current list of parties to all the parties
        to this declaration.

                                                                     Page 98


A  Adaptive                               17,20,24,39,43,52,58
   Airy Disk                              47,78
   All Sky Survey                         4,31,33-34,82-83
   Alpha Centauri                         54
   Amateur Optical SETI                   5-6,8,16,25,37,42,45-48,51-52,54,
   Ames Research Center (ARC)             3,11,19
   Arecibo                                11,16,20,27-28,36
   Asimov, Isaac                          25
   Assumption of Ineptitude               13,58
   Assumption of Mediocrity               13
   Avalanche Photodetector (APD)          7,42,44,48-50

B  Beacon                                 10,28,39,52,55,90
   BETA                                   4
   Betz, Albert                           5,7,9,13,20,35-37,55,61,78
   Big Ear Radio Observatory              7,40
   Billingham, John                       5,94
   Bit Error Rate (BER)                   41,91
   Bose-Einstein                          89
   Bova, Ben                              3
   Bulletin Board System (BBS)            6

C  Carbon Dioxide Laser (CO2)             5,13,20,29,35-38,55,61,78-79
   Carrier-To-Noise Ratio (CNR)           15-17,24,26-28,33-34,36,41,43,50,
   Challenger                             59
   Charge Coupled Device (CCD)            42,46-51
   Clarke, Arthur C.                      8,41,57-58
   Cold Fusion                            2
   Columbus Telescope                     40
   Coherence Cell                         11,18
   Coherent                               14-15,18,20,26,37,40,42,46,49,
   Contact                                1-3,27,40,56-57,63
   Cosmic Catastrophes                    57
   Cosmic Haystack                        4,32,43
   Cosmic Zoo                             2,62
   Cullers, Kent                          3,8,54
   Cyclops                                7,18,19-20,23,26-27,54,58,81,86

D  Dark Current                           38,46,49,87-89
   Daylight (Optical SETI)                20,26,36,42-43,45-47,54,58,79,89
   Deep Space Network (DSN)               11
   Directivity                            36,75
   Direct Detection                       18,25,36-37,40,42-46,51,60-61,78,
   Discovery                              58
   Dixon, Robert                          4,7,40
   Doppler Drift (Chirp)                  11,14,16,22,24,32-33,46,56,93
   Doppler Shift                          11,22,24,32,35,46,56,92-93

                                                                     Page 99

   Drake Equation                         71
   Drake, Frank                           3,9,71

E  Effective Noise Temperature            15,86
   EIRP                                   17,19,21-22,28,37-38,41,43-46,60,
   Epsilon Eradani                        54

F  Fabry-Perot                            45
   Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)           4,34,48
   Fermi's Paradox                        1
   Field-Of-View (FOV)                    31,36-37,47,56,78,80-81,85
   Fraunhofer                             4,17,23,25-26,30-31,34-35,43,46,
   Free Electron Laser                    21,29

G  Gaussian Beams                         73-75

H  Heliographs                            9
   Heterodyne                             4,14-18,20,22-23,25,35,37,42,45,
   Homodyne                               14,49,83,88-89
   Horowitz, Paul                         4
   Hubble Space Telescope (HST)           13,20

I  Image Intensifier                      42,46
   Incoherent Detection                   18,25,36-37,40,42-46,51,60-61,78,
   Interferometer                         5,8,37,40,55

J  Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)        11

K  Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT)         4,60
   Kraus, John                            40

L  Light Pollution                        26,60
   Local-Oscillator (L.O.)                5,11,14-15,20,29,31,33-34,37,44,

M  Magic Wavelength (or Frequency)        3,9,20,26,29,45,57,82
   Magnitude (Intensity)                  21-24,28,41,43-46,53-54,72
   Microchannel Plate                     46
   Microwave Observing Project (MOP)      4-5,8,13,31,40,52-54,57-59,82
   Monochromator                          42,45,47-48,50-51,54,60,89
   Morrison, Philip                       3,7,9,13
   MultiChannel Spect. Analy. (MCSA)      14,33-36,52,82,84-85

N  NASA                                   3-5,7,9,11,19,27,35,38,45,58,
   Neodymium YAG Laser (Nd:YAG)           18,21,27,29
   Noise Equivalent Bandwidth             87

O  Oliver, Bernard                        3,7,9,21,31
   Optoelectronics                        19

                                                                    Page 100

P  Perkins Telescope                      40,46
   Photomultiplier (PM)                   42,48-50
   Photon-Counting                        16,18,37,42,44-46,49,51,60,79,
   Photon Count Rate                      91
   Photonics                              19,62
   Pilot-Tone                             10-11,20,39,82-85
   Planckian                              17,20,22-23,25-28,39,42-44,46,49,
   Planetary Report                       4
   Poisson Counting                       15-16,89,91
   Polar Response                         75-76
   Prime Directive                        56
   Professional Optical SETI              4,8,14,16,40,46,59-61
   Project Ozma                           9,54

Q  Quantum (Shot) Noise                   14-17,25-26,28,37,43,79,85,87-89

R  Range Equation                         92
   Rather, John                           7,9,21,75
   Rayleigh Range                         24,74-75,90
   Rayleigh Resolution                    80
   Rayleigh Scattering                    39,59
   Rosetta Stone                          10

S  Sagan, Carl                            3
   Semaphores                             9
   Serendip                               22,26,39-40,59
   SETI Institute                         3,5,7,12,31,54,58,62,71
   SETI Protocols                         63,94
   Signal-To-Noise Ratio (SNR)            6,11,16,20-26,34,36-38,43-46,48,
   Space Odyssey (2001 & 2010)            58
   Spectrometer                           36,38,44-45,47,49,51,55,78
   Spielberg, Steven                      4
   Star Trek                              62
   Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)     14
   Symbiotic                              22,26,39-40,59

T  Targeted Search                        11-12,31,33-34,46,52-54,82
   Tarter, Jill                           8,25,54,61
   Tau Ceti                               54
   Thermal Noise                          14,87-89
   Tipler, Frank                          1,56-57
   Townes, Charles                        5,7,9,13,20,35-37,55,61,63
   Type I,II & III Civilizations          2-3

U  Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs)     1-2,63

V  Von Neumann                            1-2,32,56

W  Waterhole                              3,32

Z  Zuckerman, Ben                         9,20


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